Today In History - Friday, July 25th
Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India's first woman president
Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde supersonic passenger jet, F-BTSC, crashes just after takeoff from Paris killing all 109 aboard and 4 on the ground.
K.R. Narayanan is sworn-in as India's 10th president and the first Dalit- formerly called "untouchable"- to hold this office.
A gas bottle explodes in ''Saint Michel'' station of line B of the RER (Paris regional train network). Eight are killed and 80 wounded.
Israel and Jordan sign the Washington Declaration, which formally ends the state of war that has existed between the nations since 1948.
Israel launches a massive attack against Lebanon in what the Israelis call Operation Accountability, and the Lebanese call Seven-Day War.
The St James Church massacre occurs in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa.
Salyut 7 Cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to perform a space walk.
Black July: 37 Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo are massacred by the fellow Sinhalese prisoners.
The Cerro Maravilla Incident occurs.
Louise Brown, the world's first "test tube baby" is born.
Soviet Mars 5 space probe launched.
Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This was the start of the "Vietnamization" of the war.
In a speech John F. Kennedy emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.
SR-N1 hovercraft crosses the English Channel from Calais to Dover in just over 2 hours.
The African Regroupment Party (PRA) holds its first congress in Cotonou.
45 miles south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner ''SS Andrea Doria'' collides with the ''MS Stockholm'' in heavy fog and sinks the next day, killing 51.
The U.S. non-incorporated colonial territory of Puerto Rico adopts a "constitution" of local-limited powers, approved by the United States Congress in contravention of then-current International Law.
Operation Crossroads: an atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini atoll.
At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis stage their first show as a comedy team.
World War II: Operation Spring - one of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war: 1,500 casualties, including 500 killed.
World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio.
General Guisan orders the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and makes surrender illegal.
The Nazis assassinate Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed coup attempt.
Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) is established.
Telecommunications: the first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast takes place.
Sir Thomas Whyte introduces the first income tax in Canada as a "temporary" measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%).
Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine (Calais to Dover) in 37 minutes.
Ajinomoto is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers that a key ingredient in Konbu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and patents a process for manufacturing it.
Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan.
The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico (The land invasion, proper, began that day: Sea-based bombardment and shelling of the capital city of San Juan had been occurring since May 1898).
Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories.
The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship.
The Japanese daimyō begin returning their land holdings to the emperor as part of the Meiji Restoration reforms. (Traditional Japanese Date: June 17, 1869).
Wyoming becomes a United States territory.
The U.S. Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army (commonly called "5-star general"). Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.
American Civil War: the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution is passed by the U.S. Congress stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.
Joaquin Murietta, the famous Californio bandit known as "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed.
The first commercial use of an electric telegraph was successfully demonstrated by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone on 25 July 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London.
Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua.
War of 1812: Battle of Lundy's Lane - reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall's British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 18.00; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie.
At Aboukir in Egypt, Napoleon I of France defeats 10,000 Ottomans under Mustafa Pasha.
Horatio Nelson loses more than 300 men and his right arm during the failed conquest attempt of Tenerife (Spain).
The first stone of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is laid.
The Brunswick Manifesto is issued to the population of Paris promising vengeance if the French Royal Family is harmed.
French and Indian War: in Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.
Seven Years' War: the island battery at Fortress Louisbourg in Nova Scotia is silenced and all French warships are destroyed or taken.
British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council order the deportation of the Acadians. Thousands of Acadians are sent to the British Colonies in America, France and England. Some later move to Louisiana, while others resettle in New Brunswick.
The Three Years War begins along the Maine and Massachusetts border.
Ignacio de Maya founds the Real Santiago de las Sabinas, now known as Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo León, México.
James VI of Scotland is crowned the first king of Great Britain.
Henry IV of France publicly converts from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
Don Diego de Losada founds the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, modern-day Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela.
Henry II of France is crowned.
The city of Guayaquil is founded by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana and given the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil.
Sebastián de Belalcázar on his search of El Dorado founds the City of Santiago de Cali.
The city of Constantinople is recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.
Battle of Ourique: the independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile is declared after the battle against the Almoravids.
The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings.
Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.
Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler.