Today In History - Friday, July 25th

2007


Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India's first woman president
2000


Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde supersonic passenger jet, F-BTSC, crashes just after takeoff from Paris killing all 109 aboard and 4 on the ground.
1997


K.R. Narayanan is sworn-in as India's 10th president and the first Dalit- formerly called "untouchable"- to hold this office.
1995


A gas bottle explodes in ''Saint Michel'' station of line B of the RER (Paris regional train network). Eight are killed and 80 wounded.
1994


Israel and Jordan sign the Washington Declaration, which formally ends the state of war that has existed between the nations since 1948.
1993


Israel launches a massive attack against Lebanon in what the Israelis call Operation Accountability, and the Lebanese call Seven-Day War.
The St James Church massacre occurs in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa.
1984


Salyut 7 Cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to perform a space walk.
1983


Black July: 37 Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo are massacred by the fellow Sinhalese prisoners.
1978


The Cerro Maravilla Incident occurs.
Louise Brown, the world's first "test tube baby" is born.
1973


Soviet Mars 5 space probe launched.
1969


Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This was the start of the "Vietnamization" of the war.
1961


In a speech John F. Kennedy emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.
1959


SR-N1 hovercraft crosses the English Channel from Calais to Dover in just over 2 hours.
1958


The African Regroupment Party (PRA) holds its first congress in Cotonou.
1956


45 miles south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner ''SS Andrea Doria'' collides with the ''MS Stockholm'' in heavy fog and sinks the next day, killing 51.
1952


The U.S. non-incorporated colonial territory of Puerto Rico adopts a "constitution" of local-limited powers, approved by the United States Congress in contravention of then-current International Law.
1946


Operation Crossroads: an atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini atoll.
At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis stage their first show as a comedy team.
1944


World War II: Operation Spring - one of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war: 1,500 casualties, including 500 killed.
1943


World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio.
1940


General Guisan orders the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and makes surrender illegal.
1934


The Nazis assassinate Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed coup attempt.
1925


Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) is established.
1920


Telecommunications: the first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast takes place.
1917


Sir Thomas Whyte introduces the first income tax in Canada as a "temporary" measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%).
1909


Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine (Calais to Dover) in 37 minutes.
1908


Ajinomoto is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers that a key ingredient in Konbu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and patents a process for manufacturing it.
1907


Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan.
1898


The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico (The land invasion, proper, began that day: Sea-based bombardment and shelling of the capital city of San Juan had been occurring since May 1898).
1897


Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories.
1894


The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship.
1869


The Japanese daimyō begin returning their land holdings to the emperor as part of the Meiji Restoration reforms. (Traditional Japanese Date: June 17, 1869).
1868


Wyoming becomes a United States territory.
1866


The U.S. Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army (commonly called "5-star general"). Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.
1861


American Civil War: the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution is passed by the U.S. Congress stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.
1853


Joaquin Murietta, the famous Californio bandit known as "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed.
1837


The first commercial use of an electric telegraph was successfully demonstrated by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone on 25 July 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London.
1824


Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua.
1814


War of 1812: Battle of Lundy's Lane - reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall's British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 18.00; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie.
1799


At Aboukir in Egypt, Napoleon I of France defeats 10,000 Ottomans under Mustafa Pasha.
1797


Horatio Nelson loses more than 300 men and his right arm during the failed conquest attempt of Tenerife (Spain).
1795


The first stone of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is laid.
1792


The Brunswick Manifesto is issued to the population of Paris promising vengeance if the French Royal Family is harmed.
1759


French and Indian War: in Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.
1758


Seven Years' War: the island battery at Fortress Louisbourg in Nova Scotia is silenced and all French warships are destroyed or taken.
1755


British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council order the deportation of the Acadians. Thousands of Acadians are sent to the British Colonies in America, France and England. Some later move to Louisiana, while others resettle in New Brunswick.
1722


The Three Years War begins along the Maine and Massachusetts border.
1693


Ignacio de Maya founds the Real Santiago de las Sabinas, now known as Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo León, México.
1603


James VI of Scotland is crowned the first king of Great Britain.
1593


Henry IV of France publicly converts from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
1567


Don Diego de Losada founds the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, modern-day Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela.
1547


Henry II of France is crowned.
1538


The city of Guayaquil is founded by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana and given the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil.
1536


Sebastián de Belalcázar on his search of El Dorado founds the City of Santiago de Cali.
1261


The city of Constantinople is recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.
1139


Battle of Ourique: the independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile is declared after the battle against the Almoravids.
864


The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings.
306


Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.
285


Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler.